Safety & Efficacy: Ensuring Dosing Accuracy for Infused Products

Complications with dosing inaccuracies in the cannabis industry has always been a hot topic. In 2014, The Cannabist tested several Colorado infused products only to find that the results were different from what was indicated on the label. While the industry has come a long way at the state level since then, a study published in The Journal of the American Medical Association this past November found that 26 percent of CBD products sold online contained less CBD than the label. Similar to when you buy a bottle of wine or ibuprofen, people should be able to trust product labels.

Process validation in action at the Stratos facility
Process validation in action at the Stratos facility
(image credit: Lucy Beaugard)

There are processes that cannabis-infused product manufacturers can adopt to solve this issue. Incorporating process validation establishes reproducible customer experiences while in-process controls create product consistency and potency reliability. These operational and compliance techniques originated in the pharmaceutical industry and will undoubtedly become the future gold standard for best practices with cannabis manufacturers.

Product testing alone cannot assess quality for an entire lot or batch of product; therefore, each step of the manufacturing process must be controlled through Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP). Process validation is an aspect of GMPs used by the pharmaceutical industry to create consistency in a product’s quality, safety and efficacy. There are three main stages to process validation: process design, process qualification and continued process verification. Implementing these stages ensures that quality, including dosing accuracy, is maintained for each manufactured batch of product.

Validation: Step 1

Process design, the first phase of process validation, defines the manufacturing process based on previous product development and process research. The appropriate equipment, instruments and materials are selected as part of process design. Both standard operating procedures for equipment and operations as well as batch records for manufacturing steps are also finalized during this phase. The batch record must include critical process parameters (CPP), the parameters that must be maintained in order to produce product that consistently meets specified criteria. Mixing speed and time, temperature, pressure and flow rate are examples of common CPP. Training production personnel is also defined and performed as part of process design. Operators are trained on operating procedures and batch records in order to learn how to make the product successfully.

Process validation can help ensure accurate dosing.
Process validation can help ensure accurate dosing. (image credit: Lucy Beaugard)

Validation: Step 2

Process qualification, the next stage of process validation, is performed to evaluate the capability of a process for reproducible and robust manufacturing. Because reproducibility of a process cannot be fully assessed with a single batch, evaluation is typically performed on a minimum of three separate batches. For each batch included in the process qualification, the frequency and number of samples are increased over normal sampling to provide a more thorough assessment of each batch. The testing includes visual inspection for defects as well as quantitative tests such as weight or volume and potency. In addition to composite sampling, which is performed by combining samples from multiple time points throughout a batch (e.g. beginning, middle and end) to assess a batch as a whole, stratified sampling is performed. Stratified samples are taken from specified points throughout a batch, and rather than being combined, the samples are tested separately to indicate consistency throughout a given batch.

The Stratos product lineup- validation helped produce each of these consistently.

In addition to evaluating the reproducibility of a process, tests for robustness are performed during process qualification to demonstrate how changes in a process may impact the product. It is important to use different operators for performing manufacturing steps to ensure changes in personnel do not affect product quality. Switching out equipment and instruments will also reveal any sensitivities in a process. For example, when a different oven, mixer or tablet press is used, are the appearance, texture and potency impacted? If the product remains the same, that points toward the process being robust. Challenging the CPP will also provide important feedback regarding a process. If a step requires a temperature range of 50° – 70°C, it is recommended that the process be tested at the low end and high end of the range, to ensure the final product meets all required specifications. If the range assigned to a unit’s gross weight is 500 g ± 5%, then testing at 475 g and 525 g will offer more insight into how much variance the process truly can withstand.

Validation: Step 3

Once the process has been assessed for reproducibility and robustness, it transitions to continued process verification, which is the third and final stage of Process Validation. Performance of quality checks during each batch for the life of a product is part of this final stage. For infused products such as tablets, these checks include appearance – the tablets are the color and shape indicated by the batch record and they include the required imprint(s); weight – the tablets are within the specified weight range, which indicates correct tablet size and consistency of ingredients; hardness – tablets will dissolve/disintegrate for proper dosing; and friability – tablets will withstand stress of routine handling.

As your company grows in manufacturing volume, each of these three steps will become critical to safeguard against any inconsistencies. As we know in this industry, our most valuable asset is our license and success can be negatively impacted based on meeting compliance. Dedicating an internal role within quality and compliance will serve to future-proof your business against additional rules and regulations that are likely to come.

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Power Of The Plant: Growing Your Own Medical Marijuana

For millennia, humans have understood the curative properties of cannabis. Anthropologists have found mummified remains of shamans buried with stores of cannabis for a pleasant afterlife. As recently as the early 1900s, doctors used it for everything from asthma to promoting uterine contractions in childbirth. 

I like growing tomatoes and having their fresh summer fruits, but I really love growing my own medicine. As a registered patient in the state of Washington, I grow at home, sourcing good genetics and grow organically as possible. The process continues to teach me lessons I just don’t learn anywhere else. For many people, the idea of growing for healing is a novel idea. But, as author Michael Pollan reminds us in his book, “The Botany of Desire”:

For the most part of their history, after all, gardens have been more concerned with the power of plants than with their beauty – with the power, that is, to change us, for good and ill.

We live in a day of single compound medicines, synthetic molecules, magnetic imaging systems and genetic manipulation. Many of our great-grandmothers knew volumes more about natural healing than we do. Often we accept that medical knowledge is something that belongs to surrogates and sometimes take a passive role in the process.

Home growing involves the patient and allows for a greater level of input and control. Jerry Whiting has worked with medical cannabis patients for years. He is the co-founder and president of LeBlanc CNE, specializing in cannabis genetics, formulations, product development and education and is quite passionate on the matter:

It’s important for patients to grow their own medicine to have control over what they ingest. It alleviates fears about unwanted fertilizers and pesticides. Not only does it save money but citizen-farmers play a vital role in preserving vintage heirloom genetics that large commercial farmers ignore. Growing your own cannabis is as important as making your own tinctures, topicals and edibles.

That is why the chance to grow your own medicine is unique. If you are in a position to home grow legally in your state, I encourage you to do so. You may get occasional pests and may even accidentally kill some plants. But in the process, you just may find yourself with a better awareness of how the plant affects you, a more distinguished palette, and a higher expectation for your medicine. 

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How Weed Helps Burning Mouth Syndrome

Burning mouth syndrome—known, to the fifteen to twenty people who’ve ever heard of it, as BMS—is a mysterious oral condition with no known cause and no known cure.

In fact, the International Association for the Study of Pain defines BMS as “chronic oral mucosal pain or discomfort that has no identifiable causative lesions and is not caused by any other condition or disease,” which literally means that, if your mouth hurts and nobody can tell why, then you’ve got BMS. It’s just that mysterious.

Sufferers from BMS say it feels like a scald from hot food, and that it is sometimes accompanied by a sour, bitter, or metallic taste as well as, not surprisingly, a loss of enjoyment in food.

BMS afflicts women over men by an overwhelming seven to one, and it has a particular fondness for those nearing or just past menopause.

BMS favors women over men by an overwhelming seven to one, and it has a particular fondness for those nearing or just past menopause. (So, yes, ladies, one more damned thing to worry about). Furthermore, contributing factors include not-so-easily quantifiable conditions, such as mood disorders (like depression and anxiety) and adverse life events (like the loss of a job or a death in the family), as well as fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome—which means that BMS is another painful, chronic condition that absolutely no one close to you will take seriously.

There may be one upside, however: weed.

A 2014 study from the University of Brescia, Italy (where they take dining-inhibiting disorders extremely seriously), recounts how researchers biopsied tongue samples from eight women suffering from BMS and discovered decreased numbers of CB1 cannabinoid receptors and increased numbers of CB2.

What does this mean? No one knows yet—although it could be the first step in establishing specific markers for BMS (besides its simply “not being anything else”).

But does this mean that people with BMP should try marijuana? We don’t need to be a doctor to answer this one: If your mouth hurts, and you’re retired, and maybe you’re a little depressed or anxious—smoke dope. Smoke dope, and have a big, icy martini. You’ve earned it. It won’t cure your BMS, but it’ll probably make you feel a lot better.

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The Pitfalls Of Synthetic Marijuana

We’ve all seen it advertised in big marijuana magazines, whether we call it “spice,” “K2” or “Scooby Snacks,” it’s an assumed cannabis replacement for those who can’t score. Or, more dubiously, for those looking to fatten up their sacks or straight rip people off.

Synthetic cannabis is not cannabis at all, but leafy material sprayed with a variety of psychoactive chemicals that, beyond not being good for you, cause adverse reactions in many imbibers. Normally smoked or vaped, this substance is far more guilty of sending people to the emergency room than what it strives to imitate.

There have been moves made in states like Massachusetts to make spice illegal, but by adjusting their chemical components, companies can continue selling their laced products through that dubious loophole. Ahead of the curve, Mass. voted to make the drug illegal no matter how its compounds changed.

Aside from glossy magazines, some truck stops and convenience stores even carry the false herb, marketing it as incense or potpourri, and sometimes even labeling it as “not for human consumption,” according to The Boston Globe.

When smoking Scooby Snacks, the results can vary wildly from brand to brand and package to package. Sometimes a user may experience relaxation and an inability to concentrate on one thing for long, sometimes they might experience high anxiety, and though more rare, some experience psychosis and have to make the dreaded hospital trip.

The youth who experiment with the drug are the most likely category to end up in the ER. In many cases it’s likely that they thought they were smoking marijuana, and when the high hit absolutely nothing felt right.

Spice and cannabis are only comparable in that they grace the same pages of certain magazines and that one is made to resemble the other. Cannabis is an ancient plant with many, many therapeutic benefits, including the enhancement of one’s day. Spice, on the other hand, is a man-made concoction of chemicals known to have adverse effects.

Even when you’re out of weed, even when it seems that everyone else is out too, toking on some synthetic cannabis is not the answer. Just breathe and maybe meditate to achieve some necessary relaxation. Your next real bowl won’t be far in your future. Just wait.

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Does Marijuana Have Any Health Risks For Patients With Cardiovascular Problems?

More lethal than car accidents, cancer or acts of violence, cardiovascular disease is the number one leading cause of death in the United States.  According to the American Heart Association, heart disease caused nearly a quarter of all deaths in Massachusetts in 2010 – five times more fatalities than stroke, about eight times more than Alzheimer’s disease, and nearly 12 times more than diabetes mellitus.  There’s no disputing the fact that cardiovascular disease is a serious and widespread health issue in Massachusetts – the question is whether marijuana is safe for people who have already been diagnosed.  While marijuana has health benefits for many medical conditions, patients diagnosed with heart disease or high blood pressure should consult with a doctor before exploring cannabis treatments.

Is it True that Smoking Marijuana Can Give You a Heart Attack?

You may have heard biased sources claim that “smoking marijuana can give you a heart attack.” Remember: despite the sedative, relaxing effects of cannabis, it actually increases your heart rate.  This increases your heart’s need for oxygen, which may result in heart attack if your coronary arteries are blocked or narrowed.

However, the risk, it turns out is rather small, and applies mostly to people who have known heart disease.

One study, published in Circulation in 2001, found that marijuana may increase the risk of heart attack (myocardial infarction) – but only among who are already predisposed toward cardiovascular problems like coronary artery disease.  Even then, marijuana use was described as a “rare trigger” for myocardial infarction.  Realistically, vigorous physical activities like sex or jogging are more likely to induce heart attacks than cannabis use.

And, to reiterate an important risk factor, it’s primarily individuals with heart disease who should be concerned about adverse cardiovascular events.  As a 2002 study published in the Journal of Clinical Pharmacology rightly pointed out, “Marijuana’s cardiovascular effects are not associated with serious health problems for most young, healthy users, although occasional myocardial infarction, stroke, and other adverse cardiovascular events are reported.”

The question then becomes, how often is “occasional”?

What is the Likelihood of Suffering a Heart Attack from Using Cannabis?

According to the Circulation study, in which 3,882 patients (68% male, 32% female) were interviewed an average of four days after experiencing a heart attack, only 124 – less than 4% – reported using marijuana during the past year.  From that already narrow sample, only nine people – less than 8% of the marijuana group, and just 0.2% of the study sample overall – reporting using within the hour their heart attack symptoms started.  The study determined that the risk of having a heart attack within an hour of using marijuana was 4.8 times greater than normal, but that “the elevated risk rapidly decreased thereafter.”

But what about the risk for people who aren’t already living with cardiovascular disease?  As the Clinical Pharmacology study mentioned, incidents are rare.  The Circulation study could point to only three prior reports of heart attack “occurring in close proximity to marijuana use in otherwise low-risk individuals.”

The first, published in Clinical Toxicology 1979, noted a 25-year-old male who suffered a heart attack “in the virtual absence of risk factors… after smoking a cigarette containing marijuana.”  The study, however, fails to specify whether the cigarette contained other ingredients, such as phencyclidine (PCP), which was a popular recreational drug during the late ‘70s when the study was published.

The second, published in European Heart Journal in 1985, cited a “previously healthy 33-year-old” whose symptoms began an hour earlier “while smoking marijuana at a party.”  Again, the possibility exists that the marijuana was laced with other substances, or that the individual had intentionally consumed other substances (e.g. alcohol, recreational drugs), particularly because the use occurred at a party, and because the same individual “had taken marijuana on three occasions in the previous three years with no ill effects.”

The third, published in the International Journal of Cardiology during the early nineties, examined a healthy 17-year-old male described as a “daily user.”  The study claimed that “Marijuana use may be a much more common cause of acute myocardial infarction than is generally realized,” but was unable to provide extensive data supporting this suspicion.

The takeaway?  Marijuana can temporarily increase your risk of having a heart attack, particularly if you are elderly or have already been diagnosed with a heart condition.  While the risk is both short-lived and statistically slim, it’s still very important that you talk to your doctor about medical marijuana instead of experimenting on your own.

Cannabis and Irregular Heartbeat (Cardiac Dysrhythmias)

As a 2012 study published in Harm Reduction Journal uncovered, “[C]ardiac arrhythmia [i.e. irregular heartbeat] ha[s] been associated with the use of cannabis.  The occurrence of arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation seems to be associated with effects resulting from the parasympathetic stimulation induced by cannabis and observed with the use of higher doses.”  Additionally, another study published last year in Substance Abuse noted that “Marijuana smoking has been shown to exert adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and often causes… tachycardia [i.e. rapid heart rate] and hypotension [i.e. low blood pressure].  It is also reported to be a possible cause of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.”

The tachycardia and hypotension observed in the study were both described as being “well-tolerated.”  However, they can still pose some health hazard for patients with compromised cardiovascular systems, particularly patients with prior atrial fibrillation.

Consult with a Medical Marijuana Doctor in Massachusetts

While marijuana carries some risks for cardiovascular patients, others may benefit from carefully-monitored use under the guidance of a qualified medical cannabis physician.  If your quality of life is being negatively impacted by a serious medical condition associated with high blood pressure, you may be a good candidate for medical cannabis.  For example, cannabis can help diabetes patients control their glucose and lower insulin resistance.  Call Dr. Tishler at (617) 477-8886 to start discussing the health benefits of medical marijuana in a private consultation.

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Tourette’s Syndrome: Marijuana To The Rescue

Tourette’s Syndrome is a mysterious medical curiosity that has puzzled doctors for more than a century. People who have it suffer from tics and other behavioral problems, such as obsessive compulsive traits and attention deficit disorder.

In addition, they are cursed by a stereotype that they swear loudly and inappropriately. In reality, 10 percent actually experience these verbal outbursts, but many are stigmatized and isolated nonetheless.

I have studied Tourette’s syndrome for years, and recently published a book about treatments and the common spectrum of behavioral disorders associated with it. Swearing isn’t even one of the more frequent ones.

The fact is that over the last several years, many exciting and life-altering treatments have become available to Tourette patients and their families. We have reached a crossroads in this disease where it will become increasingly critical to re-educate the public and to make new therapies widely available.

Twitches And Tics

French scientist Jean-Martin Charcot, the founder of modern clinical neurology, coined the eponym “Tourette’s syndrome” after his student, Georges Albert Gilles de la Tourette’s, who in 1885 described nine patients suffering from the tic “malady.”

Researchers soon noticed that Tourette’s occurred among multiple family members across multiple generations.

Over the generations, however, new knowledge came slowly. Critical gaps in our understanding of the syndrome remain, and half of all cases remain undiagnosed.

Even the precise number of people affected has been hard to know. For example, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that one in 362 children, or 0.3 percent, has Tourette’s. The Tourette Association of America, on the other hand, estimates the disease is twice as common, with one in 166 kids (0.6 percent) affected.

Some Tourette’s syndrome cases are mild, with symptoms such as non-bothersome eye blinking, or mild body twitching. In many cases, the motor tics will resolve in late adolescence or early adulthood. Many patients will even lead relatively normal lives.

Lessons from the brain yield advances

Knowledge of the syndrome has increased as scientists have learned more in general about the brain.

The normal functions of the human brain seem to be dictated by rhythmic oscillations that continuously repeat over and over, much like a popular song on the radio. These oscillations change and modulate, and they act to control various human behaviors.

If an oscillation “goes bad,” it can result in a disabling tic or other behavioral symptoms of Tourette’s syndrome.

An important secret to the development of new therapies for Tourette is that we can alter these oscillations with rehabilitative therapies, cognitive behavioral intervention therapy (CBIT), medications such as tetrabenazine or even deep brain stimulation, which involves a small straw-like probe being inserted into the brain. Electricity can be delivered through this probe to disrupt the abnormal oscillations responsible for tics.

Continued Study Also Helping

The genetics of Tourette’s remain opaque. Despite the fact that the disease tends to run in families, no one has discovered a single DNA abnormality linking all, or even most, cases.

In the meantime, however, technology is offering new means of detection and treatment. Scientists have recorded tic signals from the human brain and even deployed the first smart devices to detect and suppress tics.

Some investigators are studying newer generations of medicines that decrease the complications that can occur with old-fashioned drugs, such as Haloperidol, that have traditionally been used to treat Tourette’s. Scientists are also looking for way to suppress or modulate inappropriate brain signals, spurring development of new drugs with novel brain targets, such as cannabinoid receptors.

Using marijuana to treat the symptoms of Tourette’s syndrome makes some scientific sense. Cannabinoids occur naturally in the body, and cannabinoid receptors are found throughout many brain regions. In fact, CB1 cannabinoid receptors are located in high concentrations in regions of the brain thought to be involved in Tourette’s syndrome.

Living With Tourette Syndrome

While it may appear to the casual observer that someone with Tourette’s syndrome outgrows it in adolescence or early adulthood, in fact most do not. While the motor and vocal tics wane in most cases, the obsessive-compulsive and behavioral features may persist and even escalate.

These behavioral features in Tourette’s syndrome, if left undiagnosed and untreated, will make it harder to live a normal life and will affect the person more than the noticeable motor and vocal tics.

While new treatments may lie in the future, there are many things that patients and their families can do today. Many changes, often very simple, can be incorporated into patients’ lives.

Comprehensive care teams from different disciplines play a key role. For example, a social worker can help to set up an individualized school education plan and connect families to resources that can transform difficult school situations into success stories. A rehabilitative therapist can now in many cases successfully address tics without the use of a single medication.

Our care team has taken care of close to 10,000 movement disorder patients at the University of Florida and tens of thousands more with our colleagues in the Southeast Regional Tourette Association of America Center of Excellence, which also includes neurologists, psychiatrists, rehabilitative specialists, social workers and scientists at the University of South Florida, Emory University, University of Alabama and the University of South Carolina.

There are good reasons to try different treatments, even if none seems to work. Patients need to learn how to recognize when a plan or therapy isn’t working and how to speak with their doctors and care team about trying something else. The point is that left unchecked, brain vibrations can, in some Tourette’s cases, lead to neck-snapping tics which can cause injuries, even paralysis. Today even the most severe cases have a chance for treatment with deep brain stimulation.

The ConversationThough Tourette’s syndrome remains mysterious in the public eye, it is important that we teach families about the broad palette of options that provide tangible benefits for quality of life. That is definitely something worth shouting about.

Michael Okun, is a professor of Neurology at the University of Florida. This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

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Study: Cannabis Fights Chronic Gut Problems

When it comes to treating Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), like Crohn’s and ulcerative colitis, we have substantial evidence that cannabis works. Thanks to its anti-inflammatory properties, marijuana is able to reduce IBD symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloody stool, and weight and appetite loss.

Until now, we weren’t exactly sure why cannabis was so effective in treating chronic gut problems, but a new study from researchers at the University of Massachusetts and University of Bath were able to show the physical manner in which cannabis attacks IBD. The researchers who published the study, which came out in the Journal of Clinical Investigation Monday, weren’t initially looking for marijuana’s effect on the microbiome, but stumbled upon the answer.

Via PopSci:

In the gut, a thin layer of epithelial cells mediates between our bodies and the microbial “zoo” living within. Beth McCormick of the University of Massachusetts has been studying the role these cells play in regulating the gut microbiome for well over a decade, and the starting point for this current research was her prior discovery of a chemical pathway by which epithelial cells help neutrophils, a kind of white blood cell, to cross into the gut and eat up some of the microbes. But that was clearly only half of the answer. In order to produce balance, something else had to stop too many neutrophils from getting in and killing peaceful microbes and even the gut itself—leading to IBD.

That “something else” that prevents too many neutrophils slipping through those epithelial cells and overworking your gut, as McCormick and researchers found in mice, is your endocannabinoid system. Think of the endocannabinoid system acting as a regulatory system for your gut. Not everyone produces enough cannabinoids to assist the gut in functioning properly, which helps explain why ingesting cannabinoids through cannabis has proven effective for patients.

“There’s been a lot of anecdotal evidence about the benefits of medical marijuana, but there hasn’t been a lot of science to back it up,” McCormick, who served as co-author of the study, told Newsweek.

“For the first time, we have an understanding of the molecules involved in the process and how endocannabinoids and cannabinoids control inflammation. This gives clinical researchers a new drug target to explore to treat patients that suffer from inflammatory bowel diseases, and perhaps other diseases, as well,” she said.

It’s worth mentioning that researchers have not conducted studies on using marijuana-derived cannabinoids to replace those missing in humans with IBD. But the team behind the study believes this could open the door to helping the 1.6 million Americans with IBD.  Randy Mrsny, a co-author of the study and professor at the University of Bath’s Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, told the Independent that “while this is a plausible explanation for why marijuana users have reported cannabis relieves symptoms of IBD, we have only worked in mice and have not proven this experimentally in humans.”

“However our results may provide a mechanistic explanation for anecdotal data that cannabinoid exposure benefits some colitis patients. For the first time we have identified a counterbalance to the inflammation response in the intestine and we hope that these findings will help us develop new ways to treat bowel diseases,” he added.

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Can CBD Be Used To Enhance Sex?

Marijuana has been known to enhance the sex lives of couples who consume the herb before heading into the bedroom. But not every component of the cannabis plant is a powerful aphrodisiac. While the primary psychoactive compound known as THC has left more than its fair share of young, enthusiastic lovers in a wet spot, quivering from head to feet, CBD, the non-intoxicating part of the plant does not come with the same Earth-shattering results. In fact, using CBD in hopes of conjuring up the Gods of mind-blowing orgasms is about as effective as rubbing it all over your genitalia in hopes of preventing a nasty STD. Better call the clinic now, you’re going to need it!

Although CBD has the reputation these days for its vast therapeutic reach, the fact of the matter remains, high-CBD strains of marijuana are less likely to open a couple up to the kind of animalistic sex that most people are after than strains more prominent in THC. Andrew Mieure, a certified cannabis sommelier and owner of Top Shelf Budtending, told Leafly that he doesn’t “think CBD provides enough of a “mental shift” to really impact performance negatively or positively.” You might as well toss a few cans of ginger beer in the mix.

In order to summon the beasts of belly grinding greatness, it is necessary to employ the buzzed magic of THC. This specific compound “is important because of that mental shift you experience,” Mieure said. “Whether that be loosening your mental state to be ready for sex or actually making the sex feel better physically, the mental shift is more noticeable with THC.”

Depending on your religious affiliation, THC might also help you scrap that old hole in the sheet routine. God willing, am I right?

But this does not mean that CBD is completely useless with respect to the skin-slapping activities in the boudair. The cannabinoid does, in fact, play an import role in keeping the sex from falling apart. Too much THC can make some people feel anxious and paranoid, both of which are side effects that have absolutely no place in even the most average of sex sessions.

Anxiety has been known to cause erectile dysfunction in men and the inability to orgasm in women. It’s kind of like trying to turn on the bathroom facet with a piece of cooked spaghetti. It doesn’t matter how big the meatballs are nobody is getting wet.

But CBD can counteract the intensity of its high producing counterpart. So, finding a strain that is a 1:1 THC:CBD ratio is probably the best course of action, Mieure advises. It will provide “a good mixture of euphoria and relaxation without too much knockout power.”

When using cannabis edibles to put your significant other in the mood for a night free of inhibitions, better try the micro-dosing method first. Mieure recommends 1-3 milligrams of THC to bring on the all-important mental shift. Any more than that in an inexperienced cannabis user and your pelvic partner could be at risk of a freak out that almost ensures that nobody has a good time. You want your little love muffin climbing the walls, but let’s make it for all the right reasons.

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Marijuana And Exercise: A Great Combo For Mindful Athletes

Years ago, I was in a judo class and had a classmate who was fierce. He was a short, humble guy built like a fridge and would take down people with scary precision. Flip, smack. It was a thing of beauty. One day outside of class I asked him how he got so focused. He paused for a second and smiled, “Weed.”

I thought he was joking. He was not. He was just way ahead of me.

It was not until the 1990s that scientists discovered that humans and all vertebrate animals have a naturally occurring system of receptors built to receive the active compounds in cannabis as well as similar compounds our bodies produce naturally. That is why we get ‘high’ and why medical marijuana is effective for so many conditions. 

Professional athletes from all corners of the sports world have come out in favor of allowing players to use marijuana. For some, it is a better choice for the pain, inflammation and other conditions that athletes typically deal with.

It’s not just intoxication-seeking marijuana consumers heralding the potential for the drug when it comes to exercise. For those looking for benefit without the high, CBD, or cannabidiol, is a non-psychotropic option.

Yale research scientist, professor and engineering director, Alyssa L. Siefert has written extensively on the subject and shared her enthusiasm with us: 

The broad anti-inflammatory effects of cannabis, particularly CBD, are exciting for athletes looking to quickly relax and recover, and I hope that researchers are able to focus on beneficial strains and dosages.

Let’s look at some of what we know from research that should be of interest to exercise enthusiasts looking to include marijuana in their workout regimen:

Before we pump you up with all of the good news, a word of caution for the uninitiated: Cannabis use can lead to tachycardia, or increased heart rate. This is a notable concern for cardio enthusiasts, people with heart health issues or for those who already exercise at a very elevated heart rate. Cannabis can also slow reaction times, so experimenting while participating in a contact sport is not recommended.

Protect yourself. While some competitive sports do not screen for marijuana use, it is certainly forbidden by the NCAA, the United States Anti-Doping Agency and the World Anti-Doping Agency.

Also keep in mind that smoking weed is just one way to ingest. In legal states, there are a variety of edibles, melt-away strips, tinctures, you name it. As noted before, CBD may give you some of the benefits of cannabis, but it will never make you stoned.

Maybe you want to simply do some research of your own. If so, we recommend you try it out at home first, where you can control your environment and feel most safe. Consume a moderate amount of cannabis, do some exercise and take notes on your dose, activation time and experience. That way you can find your sweet spot before you take to the gym in your newly lifted state.

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Chemo And CBD Combo Can Be Magic Bullet For Pancreatic Cancer

Out of all types of cancers that exist, which type do you think is one of the hardest to beat? On a worldwide scale, pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest forms of cancer in regards to overall survival rates. According to the American Cancer Society, amongst the combination of all stages of pancreatic cancer, the survival rate for one-year is 20 percent, and the survival rate for five years is under seven percent. Although certain cancer treatments are commonly used such as chemotherapy and radiation, in a recent study, it has been found that the combination of chemotherapy and Cannabidiol (CBD) treatments have led to significant pancreatic cancer survival rates. Read on to learn more about this unique cancer treatment and the likelihood of it being used by humans in the future.

Research Findings on Cannabidiol (CBD) and Chemotherapy Cancer Treatments

In continuation of what was mentioned above, in a recent study, mice that were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer received CBD administration alongside chemotherapy treatments. As a result of this combination, it was discovered that the mice with CBD and chemotherapy treatments survived close to three times longer than the mice that were only treated with chemotherapy.

In general, this study’s findings provide more valid reasoning for human testing. Although this study hasn’t been conducted on humans yet, the released results demonstrate the need to further investigate and study cannabis compounds, especially CBD.

Grim Pancreatic Cancer Survival Rates

Overall, pancreatic cancer is the twelfth most common cancer on a worldwide scale. Also, the highest occurrence of this type of cancer is in developed countries. Unfortunately, the overall survival rate for pancreatic cancer is quite grim. In particular, Marco Falasca, a lead researcher at Queen Mary University of London stated the following about the life expectancy of pancreatic cancer:

“The life expectancy for pancreatic cancer patients has barely changed in the last 40 years because there are very few, and mostly only palliative care treatments available. Given the five-year survival rate for people with pancreatic cancer is less than seven percent, the discovery of new treatments and therapeutic strategies is urgently needed.”

With this being said, due to the recent results derived from the mice study, there’s a strong need to further examine CBD and its potential in treating different types of cancer, especially pancreatic.

Cannabidiol’s Medicinal and Anti-cancer Properties

When it comes to CBD, thus far, it has been found that it’s an extremely medically beneficial cannabinoid, and it contains both anti-tumoral and neuroprotective properties, which can help those who have been diagnosed with cancer. However, CBD has also demonstrated its anti-nausea and antiemetic (anti-vomiting) properties. These properties have proven to be very effective for those undergoing chemotherapy and other cancer-related therapies. Additionally, Cannabidiol has been found to improve the side effects caused by chemotherapy, especially vomiting, nausea, and pain.

If human testing is conducted on the combined topic of pancreatic cancer, CBD, and chemotherapy treatments, this would build upon past animal research findings. Specifically, one study discovered CBD’s possible anti-cancer properties, and another study found CBD to be a potential anti-cancer drug.

Legality of CBD in the United States and the United Kingdom

Moreover, due to the cannabis legality differences between America and the United Kingdom, it’s likely that the conduction of human trials with a focus on CBD would progress faster in the UK than in the U.S. The reason for this is because currently, the cannabis plant remains a Schedule I illegal substance in the U.S., and CBD is a cannabinoid found in the cannabis plant. Whereas, in the UK, CBD has been approved for usage and research purposes.

Therefore, researchers and scientists based in England can legally test this cannabinoid in human clinical trials, according to Dr. Falasca. Nonetheless, the U.S. is progressing slowly but surely, especially because the U.S. FDA recently approved of a CBD-based drug called Epidiolex for the treatment of epilepsy. This specific drug approval was a significant move since it’s the first U.S. FDA-approved drug that contains a cannabinoid derived from cannabis.

Overall, since pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest forms of cancer, it would be in the general public’s best interest to have access to a natural form of medicine for cancer treatments such as CBD rather than just chemotherapy and radiation. Due to the noteworthy results that were released from the mice study discussed above, it’s likely that Cannabidiol will be further studied and investigated moving forward, especially for cancer treatment purposes.

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